The Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases The Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
Review article
Will Mayaro virus be responsible for the next outbreak of an arthropod-borne virus in Brazil?
Danillo Lucas Alves Esposito, Benedito Antonio Lopes da Fonseca,
Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Departmento de Clínica Médica, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil
Received 20 February 2017, Accepted 11 June 2017

Mayaro virus is an alphavirus from the Togaviridae family and is transmitted mainly by Hemagogus mosquitoes. This virus circulates in high-density tropical forests or rural areas of Central and South America causing a disease characterized by high-grade fever, maculopapular skin rash and marked arthralgia that, in some patients, can persist for long periods after infection and may be misinterpreted as chikungunya. Although only a few outbreaks involving this virus have been reported, in the last years the number of Mayaro virus infections has increased in the central and northern regions of Brazil. In this review, we describe the reported prevalence of this infection over the years and discuss the circumstances that can contribute to the establishment of an urban mayaro virus epidemic in Brazil and the problems encountered with the specific diagnosis, especially the antigenic cross-reactivity of this pathogen with other viruses of the same family.

Mayaro virus, Alphavirus, Chikungunya virus, Epidemiology, Outbreaks