The Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases The Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
Original article
Cost-utility of quadrivalent versus trivalent influenza vaccine in Brazil – comparison of outcomes from different static model types
Laure-Anne Van Bellinghena,, , Alen Marijamb, Gabriela Tannus Branco de Araujoc, Jorge Gomezd, Ilse Van Vlaenderena
a CHESS in Health, Bonheiden, Belgium
b GSK, Wavre, Belgium
c AxiaBio, São Paulo, SP, Brazil
d GSK, Victoria, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Received 17 July 2017, Accepted 14 November 2017

Influenza burden in Brazil is considerable with 4.2–6.4 million cases in 2008 and influenza-like-illness responsible for 16.9% of hospitalizations. Cost-effectiveness of influenza vaccination may be assessed by different types of models, with limitations due to data availability, assumptions, and modelling approach.


To understand the impact of model complexity, the cost-utility of quadrivalent versus trivalent influenza vaccines in Brazil was estimated using three distinct models: a 1-year decision tree population model with three age groups (FLOU); a more detailed 1-year population model with five age groups (FLORA); and a more complex lifetime multi-cohort Markov model with nine age groups (FLORENCE).


Analysis 1 (impact of model structure) compared each model using the same data inputs (i.e., best available data for FLOU). Analysis 2 (impact of increasing granularity) compared each model populated with the best available data for that model.


Using the best data for each model, the discounted cost-utility ratio of quadrivalent versus trivalent influenza vaccine was R$20,428 with FLOU, R$22,768 with FLORA (versus R$20,428 in Analysis 1), and, R$19,257 with FLORENCE (versus R$22,490 in Analysis 1) using a lifetime horizon. Conceptual differences between FLORA and FLORENCE meant the same assumption regarding increased all-cause mortality in at-risk individuals had an opposite effect on the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio in Analysis 2 versus 1, and a proportionally higher number of vaccinated elderly in FLORENCE reduced this ratio in Analysis 2.


FLOU provided adequate cost-effectiveness estimates with data in broad age groups. FLORA increased insights (e.g., in healthy versus at-risk, paediatric, respiratory/non-respiratory complications). FLORENCE provided greater insights and precision (e.g., in elderly, costs and complications, lifetime cost-effectiveness).


All three models predicted a cost per quality-adjusted life year gained for quadrivalent versus trivalent influenza vaccine in the range of R$19,257 (FLORENCE) to R$22,768 (FLORA) with the best available data in Brazil (Appendix A).

Influenza, Brazil, Cost-effectiveness, Vaccination, QIV, TIV